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2007/07/31

超人のジャーナリスト・アイ 67 北欧映画の巨匠・イングマル・ベルイマン監督の死

北欧映画の巨匠・イングマル・ベルイマン監督の死を伝えるスウェーデンの有力新聞・ダーゲンスニーヘーテル電子版のトップ記事。

Publicerad 30 juli 17:13
Blommor_3


Världens blickar riktas mot Fårö
Fårö. Ingmar Bergman älskade sitt Fårö. Och öborna älskade sin Fårögubbe. DN:s Anna-Maria Hagerfors besöker ön som återigen tar emot reportar från hela världen.

Himlen hängde regngrå över Fårös kalkvita vägar. "Dämonerna" hade slutligt kommit till ro ute hos enslingen på Fårös vackraste udde. Grindarna, som ligger i smultronskogen med skyltarna "Enskilt område" och "Varning för hunden", var låsta.

- Jag hade bara en liten tax, men det där skrämde bort folk, hehe, skrockade han en gång.

Klapperstensstranden med raukar inhägnade han med stenmurar och gav blanka fan i allemansrätten.

- Och nu har jag fått en tjurhage till granne, så då kommer inga turister in från det hållet heller, frustade han nöjt när han beslöt bosätta sig på ön året runt år 2003.

"Var bor Ingmar Bergman?" har turisterna frågat i Konsum och Ica i 47 år nu. Alla Fåröbor har satt en ära i att peka åt fel håll. Ingen ville lämna ut "våran Bergman".

Deras kärlek var djupt besvarad och på dödsdagen hissades Bygdegårdens flagga på halv stång, den gård han hjälpte dem att rusta upp med en rejäl bunt sedlar.

- Det är klart att vi älskade Ingmar Bergman. Han satte ju bortglömda Fårö på världskartan. Han hade stor respekt för oss och var aldrig nedlåtande, säger Fårö sockens taleskvinna, läraren Kerstin Kalström.

- Han var mycket mån om att se till att vi fick arbeta med hans olika byggen och renoveringar, bygga filmkulisser och agera som statister. Och när hans fru Ingrid levde skickade de alltid julkort.

Telefonen ringer i ett på Kalströms gård, och snart kommer nog all världens medier att hitta hit och göra intervjuer med Kerstin som sitter med barnbarnen runt benen i köket.

- Nu hoppas vi att det blir ett Bergmancenter här året runt med hela världsarvet av hans produktion och möjlighet att inbjuda forskare. Vi har ju märkt under vår årliga Bergmanvecka hur oändligt många det är som forskar om Bergman över hela världen. De ringer hit och vill veta mer. Många av dem kan allt, allt& varenda scen i hans filmer!

Bergmanveckan hölls i år för fjärde gången, men huvudpersonen satt i rullstol och orkade inte vara med. Journalister från världens största filmtidningar var besvikna, men fick ändå se hans privata biograf i en stuga i filmbyn han skapade på Dämba. En gång om året samlade Svenska Filminstitutet in alla aktuella filmer som han var nyfiken på och körde ut dem till bion med sin 1970-talsinredning och en textil vävnad av Anita Grede med motiv från "Trollflöjten", där Bergman själv är med.

- Det finns också att optiskt ljusfenomen där. Dörrens nyckelhål är stort, och håller man ett tunt tyg framför blir det rena camera obscura. Man ser Fåröheden utanför upp och ned, berättar Jannike Åhlund som bor vid ett fiskeläge på ön om somrarna. Hon var tidigare chef för Göteborgs filmfestival och fortsätter att hålla i Bergmanveckan.

- Jag fick äran att bli en av hans telefonkompisar, och det var väldigt roligt. "Det är Fårögubben", sa han alltid.

Privat hade han en humor som inte liknade den burleska i filmerna. I telefonen kunde han vara både elak och sarkastisk på ett roligt sätt. Han gillade kulturskvaller och var ytterst välinformerad, trots att han levde så isolerat.

- Det roligaste på Bergmanveckan var i fjol när han och Harriet Andersson munhöggs. Då kände man att man satt på filmhistoriens första parkett, säger Jannike Åhlund.

Den store har redan sin gravplats bokad på Fårö kyrkogård, vid ett gotländskt stentun. Utanför har man nyss klippt lammen och ulltussarna ligger i stora högar.

Inne i kyrkan brinner ljusen stilla, medan regnet strilar och turisterna står tysta. Kyrkan där han satt så ofta, i ensam meditation och andakt.

Enligt författaren och svärsonen Henning Mankell kommer begravningen att äga rum i Fårö kyrka och förrättas av en präst i församlingen.

- Det blir en väldigt handboksmässig förrättning inför de allra närmsta anhöriga, säger han.

Anna-Maria Hagerfors


"Bergman välkomnade döden"
Natten till måndag avled Ingmar Bergman stilla i sitt hem på Fårö. Mästerregissören blev 89 år.

Ingmar1

Ingmar Bergman var en av Sveriges största konstnärer och internationellt erkänd som en av filmhistoriens främsta. På måndagen dog han lugnt och stilla, hemma på Fårö.

I många filmer har han bearbetat döden - han hade tidigare en dödsskräck - men det var länge sedan Ingmar Bergman slutade vara rädd för döden. Det säger SVT-jornalisten Marie Nyreröd som var en av de som umgicks med honom närmast på senare år.

- Det har han sagt många gånger, i flera år, att han ska välkomna döden den dag den kommer. Han var övertygad om att han då skulle återförenas med sin sista hustru, Ingrid von Rosen, säger Marie Nyreröd.

Något datum för Ingmar Bergmans begravning är inte fastställt men hans dotter, regissören Eva Bergman, säger till TT att den ska ske i en nära krets av familj och vänner. Självklart kommer han dock nu att uppmärksammas offentligt på flera håll och sätt (se artikel intill).

Budet om bortgången kommenterades officiellt av såväl stats- som kulturministern.

- Jag tror att det är svårt att till fullo förstå och förmå överblicka det enorma bidrag till svensk film och dramatik i Sverige och utomlands som Ingmar Bergman nu lämnar efter sig, säger statsminister Fredrik Reinfeldt.

Lena Adelsohn Liljeroth, som även berömmer dramatikern och författaren Ingmar Bergman, riktar sina tankar främst till hans stora familj, men hon säger också att "en stor man har gått ur tiden, en internationell ikon för Sverige har lämnat oss".

- Ingmar Bergmans filmer är utan tvekan milstolpar för hela filmkonsten. Hans betydelse kan inte överskattas. Från lättheten och allvaret i filmer som Smultronstället till de oförglömliga, existentiella samtalen i Scener ur ett äktenskap och de senare filmerna, har Ingmar Bergman frikostigt delat med sig av sin kamp med de inre demonerna och påverkat människor världen över. Hans filmer finner ständigt en ny publik.

Cissi Elwin, vd för Svenska filminstitutet, betonar hans stora betydelse för institutet och säger i ett pressmeddelande att:

- Det finns ingen som arbetar med film i Sverige som inte har en relation till Ingmar Bergman. Men han har också influerat filmskapare över hela världen. Under mer än ett halvt sekel har han lett oss in i sina alldeles egna filmiska landskap - och konfronterat oss med oss själva. Ingmar Bergman har lämnat oss, men hans filmer kommer att leva vidare, långt långt efter att han är borta.

Marie Nyreröd säger att Ingmar Bergman aldrig gav upp livet eller framtiden. Något han fantiserade över var att flytta tillbaka till Stockholm under delar av året och i vintras bad han Marie Nyreröd att titta efter en lägenhet i hans barndomskvarter på Östermalm - vid Hedvig Eleonora där hans pappa en gång var kyrkoherde.

- Han hade en vision om hur han skulle kunna smyga in på Dramatens repetitioner, eller lyssna på någon orkester. Även om han konsumerade mycket musik på skiva och teater på tv, så saknade han den levande musiken, den levande teatern. Han kände en sorg över att inte ha den omkring sig.

I oktober genomgick Ingmar Bergman en höftoperation på Sophiahemmet i Stockholm - där hans far en gång var sjukhuspräst - som han lämnade för Fårö efter tre veckor.

Sedan dess har rykten om hans hälsa och ohälsa gått, men enligt Marie Nyreröd har han varit pigg hela tiden, eller åtminstone så pigg som man kan vänta sig av en 89-åring.

Ingmar Bergman var också medveten om vad som väntade den dag han lämnade livet - att människor skulle gräva i hans liv, forska om hans person och gärning.

En berättelse om detta har Bibi Rödöö, projektledare för Sommar i P1. Ingmar Bergmans Sommar den 18 juli 2004 resulterade i programmets hittills största lyssnarrespons och Sveriges radio skickade två stora kartonger med handskrivna brev till Fårö.

Han tyckte om de personliga breven, att de var skakande och rörande, men planerna på att trycka en bok med dem gick bokstavligen i rök. Så här sade han till Bibi Rödöö:

- Jo, du förstår det är så många som är ute och vetenskapar på Ingmar Bergman och de här breven är så personliga, så jag har bränt brevena. Jag lämnar inget efter mig...jag organiserar min epilog.

Ossi Carp

■Radio Sweden電子版2007年7月30日の記事。
278800_336_250

2007-07-30
Film Legend Ingmar Bergman Dead at 89

Legendary film maker Ingmar Bergman has died at his home on the Swedish island of Fårö.

The famous director of such films as ”The Seventh Seal” and ”Scenes from a Marriage” was 89. Many considered Ingmar Bergman to be the best film director of the 50’s and 60’s.

In 1982 his film ”Fanny and Alexnader” won four Oscars, including Best Foreign Language Film.

Altogether Bergman directed more than 40 films, as well as over 100 theater productions, and many plays for television.

In recent years he left the world of film and directed a series of highly acclaimed plays at Stockholm’s Royal Dramatic Theater.

■スウェーデン大使館の記事。

2007-07-31

イングマル・ベルイマン監督死去 89歳
伝説的なスウェーデン人映画監督、イングマル・ベルイマン氏が30日、フォーロ島の自宅で死去した。89歳だった。

ベルイマン監督は、まぎれもなく世界的に最も知られているスウェーデン人であり、世界の映画史を代表する巨匠の一人と言われている。

映画芸術家としてのベルイマン氏のキャリアは、とてもユニークである。監督としてのデビュー作品、危機(46年)から自伝的作品「ファニーとアレクサンデル」(82年)まで、40作品以上を製作した。

名作といわれる作品は、’The Seventh Seal’「第七の封印」(1957), ‘Wild Strawberries’「野いちご」(1957), ‘The Silence’「沈黙」(1963) and ‘Persona’ 「仮面ペルソナ」(1966)など。

■イングマール・ベルイマン サイトから最新版の記事。

イングマール・ベルイマン
 Ingmar Bergman

生年 ■ 1918/07/14
出身地 ■ スウェーデン/ウプサラ
没年 ■ 2007/07/30
[IMDB Search]

■大学時代に演劇に目覚め、ストックホルム王立オペラ劇場などを経て演劇方面のキャリアを築く一方、映画のシナリオを手がけるようになる。44年、自作脚本の「もだえ」が映画化される際に助監督を務め、46年「危機」で監督デビュー。代表作に「野いちご」、「第七の封印」、「処女の泉」、「秋のソナタ」などがある。82年の「ファニーとアレクサンドル」以降は、テレビと演劇に活躍の舞台を移した。5度の結婚の末に8人の子供がいてダニエルは監督、アンナは女優、その他二人の子供も俳優とTVの監督になった。

【関連人物】
アンナ・ベルイマン   娘
ダニエル・ベルイマン   息子

【フィルモグラフィー】
[001] ■   サラバンド (2003) 監督 /脚本
[003] ■   不実の愛、かくも燃え (2000) 脚本
[004] ■   日曜日のピュ (1994) 脚本
[005] ■   愛の風景 (1992) 脚本
[006] ■   ベルイマンの世界/ドキュメント「ファニーとアレクサンデル」 (1985) 監督 /脚本
[008] ■   リハーサルの後で (1984) <TVM> 監督 /脚本
[010] ■   ファニーとアレクサンデル (1982) 監督 /脚本
[012] ■   夢の中の人生 (1980) <未> 監督 /脚本
[014] ■   秋のソナタ (1978) 監督 /脚本
[016] ■   蛇の卵 (1977) <未> 監督 /脚本
[018] ■   鏡の中の女 (1975) 監督 /製作 /脚本
[021] ■   ある結婚の風景 (1974) 監督 /脚本
[023] ■   ある結婚の風景 (1974) <TVM> 監督 /脚本
[025] ■   魔笛 (1974) 監督 /脚本
[027] ■   叫びとささやき (1972) 監督 /脚本
[029] ■   愛のさすらい (1971) <未> 監督
[030] ■   沈黙の島 (1969) <未> 監督
[031] ■   夜の儀式 (1969) 監督 /脚本
[033] ■   仮面/ペルソナ (1967) 監督 /製作 /脚本
[036] ■   狼の時刻 (1966) <未> 監督 /脚本
[038] ■   ベルイマン監督の 恥 (1966) <未> 監督
[039] ■   この女たちのすべてを語らないために (1964) <未> 監督 /脚本
[041] ■   沈黙 (1962) 監督 /脚本
[043] ■   冬の光 (1962) 監督 /脚本
[045] ■   鏡の中にある如く (1961) 監督 /脚本
[047] ■   悪魔の眼 (1960) <未> 監督 /脚本
[049] ■   処女の泉 (1960) 監督
[050] ■   女はそれを待っている (1958) 監督
[051] ■   魔術師 (1958) 監督 /脚本
[053] ■   野いちご (1957) 監督 /脚本
[055] ■   第七の封印 (1956) 監督 /脚本
[057] ■   夏の夜は三たび微笑む (1955) 監督 /脚本
[059] ■   愛のレッスン (1954) 監督 /脚本
[061] ■   道化師の夜 (1953) 監督 /脚本
[063] ■   シークレット・オブ・ウーマン (1952) 監督 /脚本
[065] ■   不良少女モニカ (1952) 監督 /脚本
[067] ■   夏の遊び (1951) 監督 /原案 /脚本
[070] ■   歓喜に向って (1950) <未> 監督 /脚本
[072] ■   渇望 (1949) 監督
[073] ■   牢獄 (1949) 監督 /脚本
[075] ■   愛欲の港 (1948) 監督 /脚本
[077] ■   闇の中の音楽 (1948) 監督 /脚本
[079] ■   エヴァ (1948) <未> 脚本
[080] ■   インド行きの船 (1947) 監督 /脚本
[082] ■   われらの恋に雨が降る (1946) 監督 /脚本
[084] ■   危機 (1946) <未> 監督 /脚本
[086] ■   もだえ (1944) 脚本 /助監督

【その他のおすすめ】

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【ニュース】
DVDリリース情報:「スキャナー・ダークリー」「サラバンド」etc. 2007/03/22
ケネス・ブラナー、「魔笛」を映画化へ 2005/08/18
過去25年のベストワン映画は? 2002/11/08

【ユーザー評価】
作品名 投票数 平均

 
監督

野いちご 6 9.83
秋のソナタ 8 8.50
 
脚本

野いちご 6 9.83
秋のソナタ 8 8.50

【受賞履歴】
(■=受賞、□=ノミネート)
アカデミー賞
1983年 □ 監督賞 ファニーとアレクサンデル
□ 脚本賞 ファニーとアレクサンデル
1978年 □ 脚本賞 秋のソナタ
1976年 □ 監督賞 鏡の中の女
1973年 □ 監督賞 叫びとささやき
□ 脚本賞 叫びとささやき
1970年 ■ アーヴィング・タールバーグ記念賞
1962年 □ 脚本賞 鏡の中にある如く
1959年 □ 脚本賞 野いちご
 
カンヌ国際映画祭
1973年 ■ フランス映画高等技術委員会賞 叫びとささやき
1960年 ■ FIPRESCI(国際映画批評家連盟)賞 処女の泉
■ 特別賞 処女の泉
1958年 ■ 監督賞 女はそれを待っている
1957年 ■ 審査員特別賞 第七の封印
1956年 ■ 詩的ユーモア賞 夏の夜は三たび微笑む
1947年 ■ 特別表彰 インド行きの船
 
ヴェネチア国際映画祭
1983年 ■ 国際評論家賞 ファニーとアレクサンデル
1971年 ■ 栄誉賞
1959年 ■ 審査員特別賞 魔術師
■ イタリア批評家賞(コンペティション) 魔術師
1958年 ■ イタリア批評家賞(コンペティション外) 野いちご
 
ベルリン国際映画祭
1962年 ■ 国際カトリック映画事務局賞 鏡の中にある如く
1958年 ■ 金熊賞 野いちご
 
全米批評家協会賞
1975年 ■ 特別賞 魔笛 素晴らしいオペラがいかに映画になるかのお手本を示したことに対して
1974年 ■ 脚本賞 ある結婚の風景
1972年 ■ 脚本賞 叫びとささやき
1970年 ■ 監督賞 沈黙の島
1968年 ■ 監督賞 ベルイマン監督の 恥 「狼の時間」に対しても
1967年 ■ 監督賞 仮面/ペルソナ
 
NY批評家協会賞
1983年 ■ 監督賞 ファニーとアレクサンデル
1974年 ■ 脚本賞 ある結婚の風景
1972年 ■ 監督賞 叫びとささやき
■ 脚本賞 叫びとささやき
 
ゴールデン・グローブ
1983年 □ 監督賞 ファニーとアレクサンデル
 
ヨーロッパ映画賞
1988年 ■ 生涯功労賞
 
セザール賞
2004年 □ EU(欧州連合)作品賞 サラバンド
1983年 ■ 外国映画賞 ファニーとアレクサンデル
1975年 ■ 名誉賞

【DVD リリース】
発売中

洋画

商品名 発売日 税込価格
【DVD】愛の風景 2003/06/27  \5,880
【DVD】愛のレッスン 2001/03/25  \4,935
【DVD】愛欲の港 2000/06/25  \5,040
【DVD】秋のソナタ 2000/04/25  \5,040
【DVD】イングマール・ベルイマン コレクション <初回限定生産> 2004/09/17  \13,440
【DVD】エヴァ 2001/02/25  \4,935
【DVD】渇望 2000/08/25  \5,040
【DVD】仮面/ペルソナ 2002/09/25  \5,040
【DVD】危機 2002/02/25  \5,040
【DVD】サラバンド 2007/05/26  \5,040
【DVD】処女の泉 2000/04/25  \5,040
【DVD】第七の封印 2000/06/25  \5,040
【DVD】夏の遊び 2002/05/25  \5,040
【DVD】ファニーとアレクサンデル 2000/12/21  \8,190
【DVD】魔術師 2002/02/25  \5,040
【DVD】ベルイマン/魔笛 2003/05/24  \5,670
【DVD】もだえ 2001/02/25  \4,935
【DVD】夢の中の人生 2002/05/25  \5,040
【DVD】リハーサルの後で 2000/08/25  \5,040
【DVD】悪魔の眼 2002/07/25  \5,040
【DVD】ある結婚の風景 2001/07/25  \8,190
【DVD】鏡の中にある如く 2001/08/25  \5,040
【DVD】歓喜に向かって 2001/07/25  \5,040
【DVD】この女たちのすべてを語らないために 2002/01/25  \5,040
【DVD】叫びとささやき 2002/01/25  \5,040
【DVD】シークレット・オブ・ウーマン 2002/03/25  \5,040
【DVD】沈黙 2001/08/25  \5,040
【DVD】夏の夜は三たび微笑む 2002/07/25  \5,040
【DVD】野いちご 2001/07/25  \5,040
【DVD】不実の愛、かくも燃え 2002/08/21  \4,935
【DVD】冬の光 2001/08/25  \5,040
【DVD】不良少女モニカ 2001/03/25  \4,935
【DVD】夜の儀式 2002/03/25  \5,040

■イギリスのThe Independent紙の2007年7月31日の電子版の記事。

Ingmar Bergman: A morally flawed recluse, but a director touched by genius
By Geoffrey McNab
Published: 31 July 2007
"He doesn't have to meet people here. He can be alone with the stones and the heavens. It is good for the soul," the actress Barbro Hjort af Ornas said of Faro, the remote, windswept island in the Baltic Sea where Ingmar Bergman died yesterday.

She first met Bergman in the late 1930s, when she appeared in amateur plays that he directed. As a Faro resident, she understood why he sought refuge there. "The air is different, the light is different. There is a peace you can get here - an absolute peace. No one to see and nothing to disturb you, just nature."

When we were on Faro last month for Bergman Week, a series of lectures and screenings dedicated to him, it was midsummer. It didn't get dark at all. Not that this changed the island's eerie atmosphere. As Bergman testified, "my ghosts, my demons, phantoms and spirits never appear at night. They often appear in broad daylight."

Bergman would have wanted Faro to be his last resting place. In January 2004 he emptied his apartment in Stockholm, quit his office at the Dramatic Theatre, anddeclared that he would never leave the island again.

The attendees at the Bergman Week knew that Bergman wasn't well. He had had a hip replacement and was reportedly confined to a wheelchair. His eyesight was fading and he had stopped watching films in that specially built cinema where he used to screen Charlie Chaplin's The Circus every Christmas. There were rumours that he was beginning to deviate from the rigorous daily routine he had followed for so long - brisk early morning walk, three-hour writing stint, lunch, reading and then an afternoon film. Now, his main consolation was music. On Sunday evenings, his former wife Kabi Laretei - a concert pianist - would play music for him.

Even so, no one suspected quite how fast he was fading. After all, last year, when Ang Lee had visited the Bergman Week, the director himself had been much in evidence, attending talks on his work, joshing from the audience with Harriet Andersson and debating the religious themes in one of his starkest films, Winter Light, with a leading theologian. We all hoped we would spot him this year too, but he didn't show. Kenneth Branagh, the event's special guest, was unable to meet him. (Bergman was aware of Branagh's work, and had screened Branagh's In The Bleak Midwinter in his cinema.)

Everyone was looking forward to his 90th birthday next July. Events were being planned all over the world: retrospectives, travelling exhibitions. Now, one guesses, these events will be rushed forward.

Death was Bergman's subject. As he told the film-maker Marie Nyrerod, "not a day has gone by in my life when I haven't thought about death." It is there in one way or another in almost all his films. Don't just think of the (now clichéd) image of the Knight playing chess with the grim reaper in The Seventh Seal. Death comes in all different ways in his work.

In Wild Strawberries, the mood is lyrical as an old man looks back over his life. Contrast this with the misogynistic fury of the killing of the prostitute in From the Life of the Marionettes, one of his most disturbing and underrated films. There is the ballet dancer lamenting her lover who died in freakish circumstances in Summer Interlude. In The Serpent's Egg, set in 1920s Germany as the seeds of fascism are sown, death is as brutal as in any Hollywood revenge thriller.

Bergman's magisterial autobiography The Magic Lantern is full of death. He writes vividly - and with an occasionally morbid relish - about relatives killed by trains, pregnant servant girls who commit suicide and drowned bodies with eels coming out of all their orifices.

In some quarters, there will be relief at Bergman's passing. The Swedes, who sometimes gave the impression of being embarrassed by this monumental figure in their midst, will be able to honour him without reservation. The old spats - the battle with the tax authorities that led him to live in exile, the debates about his stifling effect on younger film-makers - will be forgotten. He will take his place in the list of their major cultural figures, at least the equal of his beloved Strindberg.

His achievements are indeed remarkable - more than 50 films, over 120 major theatre productions, the radio plays, the TV dramas and the books. In sheer volume and consistent quality, it is hard to think of anyone who matches him.

Bergman possessed a relentless artistic drive. Even in the 1930s, when he was directing amateur drama, Barbro Hjort af Ornas testifies that he was already subject to his famous tantrums. By his own admission, Bergman wasn't the perfect family man. "I've been married five times, I won't deny it," he told Marie Nyrerod. Most of his marriages lasted five years, but he was self-evidently more obsessed with his work than with his children. "I've been family lazy. It is quite simply that. I haven't put an ounce of effort into my families."

He told one devastating story about how he broke with his wife after falling in love with the journalist Gun Hagberg. He returned home, sat on the bed and told his wife (who was delighted to see him home sooner than expected) that he was leaving her - and then off he went. "It still feels terrible to think that I could have been so incredibly cruel ... but ... I was."

It may be prurient and reductive to pore over the messy private lives of artists. In Bergman's case, it is unavoidable. He drew so heavily from his private life in his work that some knowledge of the former can't help but elucidate the latter.

The affair and subsequent marriage to Gun Hagberg was traumatic, but it was a tremendous stimulus to his creativity. Hagberg became the model for many women in his films. As late as 2000, when he provided the screenplay for Liv Ullmann's Faithless, he was still raking over his relationship with her and the feelings of lust, jealousy and anger it engendered.

There is one central paradox - how could someone who wrote so creatively and attentively about childhood be so uninterested in his own children's lives? Anyone who has read The Magic Lantern or seen Fanny And Alexander will realise that Bergman had an uncanny ability to capture a child's-eye view of the world in all its innocence and perversity. Perhaps, though, the only childhood he was interested in was his own.

It was understandable that critics were sometimes wary of him. He claimed to have a black book in which he jotted down the names of all the people he didn't like. There was one famous occasion on which he slugged a reviewer who had panned his work - an action he later regretted.

One shouldn't discount his humour, which was often at his own expense. In The Magic Lantern, Bergman wrote in entertaining, self-deprecating fashion about his chronic stomach problems, his early misadventures in masturbation, his adolescent gawkiness with girls, and his egotism as a young director.

There was something Prospero-like about Bergmanon his island. He would talk without irony about the spirits who surrounded him on Faro. He needed his demons - his fear and rage. "Of course the demons have to be around," he told his friend and fellow film-maker Jorn Donner. "But as long as I am in the studio or theatre, I control the universe and so the demons are automatically kept under control."

■イギリスのロイター通信社の記事。

Film icon Ingmar Bergman dies
Mon Jul 30, 2007 5:54PM BST

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[-] Text [+] By Anna Ringstrom and Sarah Edmonds

STOCKHOLM (Reuters) - Sweden's Ingmar Bergman, who influenced a generation of film-makers with his often stark works about mortality and sexual torment, died on Monday aged 89.

The self-taught director and scriptwriter died in the morning at his home on Faro Island in the Baltic Sea, said Cissi Elwin, chief executive of the Swedish Film Institute.

Sweden and the global film community lamented the death of an icon.

"He was one of the great ones," Jorn Donner, producer of "Fanny and Alexander", Bergman's last work for the big screen which won four Oscars, told Reuters.

Elwin said Bergman, in a wheelchair and seeming very tired, had appeared briefly this month at an annual celebration of his career on Faro Island.

"It's a very big loss today," she said. "It's very, very strange and very unreal because Ingmar Bergman is so much (a part of) Swedish film."

Bergman was famed for films such as "Wild Strawberries", "Scenes From a Marriage" and "Fanny and Alexander", which gave Sweden a reputation for melancholy and made him an acknowledged master of modern cinema.

He made 54 films, 126 theatre productions and 39 radio plays. His cinematic masterpieces often dwelt on sexual confusion, loneliness and the vain search for the meaning of life -- themes he ascribed to a traumatic childhood in which he was beaten by his father, a Lutheran minister.

He told Reuters in a rare interview in 2001 that personal demons tormented and inspired him throughout his life.

"The demons are innumerable, appear at the most inconvenient times and create panic and terror," he said at the time. "But I have learnt that if I can master the negative forces and harness them to my chariot, then they can work to my advantage."

The heavily autobiographical "Fanny and Alexander" tells the story of an upper-class family in the city of Uppsala before World War One.

The boy protagonist Alexander and his sister Fanny are mentally and physically abused by their stepfather -- a bishop modelled on Bergman's father. Alexander at last uses supernatural powers to take a sinister revenge.

HOMAGE

Bergman gained international recognition with "The Seventh Seal", a 1956 film in which a Crusader searching for God plays chess with a personified Death. Film directors all over the world have named him as an inspiration.

Woody Allen idolised him, paying homage to "The Seventh Seal" in his early comedy "Love and Death".

"He was a friend and truly the best director in my lifetime," Allen told Sweden's Aftonbladet newspaper. "I was very sad to hear that he has passed away."

Danish director Bille August, who won the 1992 Palme d'Or at Cannes for "The Best Intentions", a movie based on a script Bergman wrote about his parents, said the Swede was a trusted friend who would listen to his doubts.

"It was a real shock to me because he was the last big director left," August said of Bergman's death.

"He left a big vacuum behind."

Oscar-winning Polish director Andrzej Wajda said it was Bergman's "absolute isolation" that impressed him.

"He created great art, and for us -- movie directors -- he gave hope, a belief, that if we wanted to say something about ourselves, the world would notice," he told Polish news agency

PAP.

At home in Sweden, government and cultural officials and the media also lined up to pay tribute to one of the most famous Swedes.

"His works are immortal," Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt said.

Elwin said the Swedish Film Institute planned a memorial night in August and would invite film historians and colleagues from the acting world to pay tribute to Bergman's career.

He won Academy Awards for best foreign language film in 1960, 1961 and 1983, and a collection of his work was last month added to the UNESCO store of history's greatest archives.

Although he stepped away from the big screen after "Fanny and Alexander", he subsequently directed a number of television productions up to 2003 when he made "Saraband".

Off stage, Bergman's private life often took the limelight. He was married five times to beautiful and gifted women and had liaisons with his leading actresses. Bergman had nine children.

Eventually, he settled on Faro -- or "sheep" -- island off Sweden's southeast coast, where he had shot seven films.

(Additional reporting by Fredrika Bernadotte, Helena Soderpalm and Adam Cox in Stockholm, Terhi Kinnunen in Helsinki and David Cutler in London)

■アメリカのランカスター紙電子版の記事はAP電のもの。

Film Great Ingmar Bergman Dies at 89
By Louise Nordstrom
Associated Press Writer

Published: Jul 30, 2007 9:56 PM EST

STOCKHOLM, Sweden (AP) - Master filmmaker Ingmar Bergman, one of the greatest artists in cinema history, died Monday at his home on an island off the coast of Sweden. He was 89.

Bergman's dozens of works combined deep seriousness, indelible imagery and unexpected flashes of humor in finely written, inventively shot explorations of difficult subjects such as plague and madness.

His vision encompassed the extremes of his beloved Sweden: the claustrophobic gloom of unending winter nights, its glowing summer evenings and the bleak magnificence of the Baltic islet of Faro, where the reclusive artist spent his last years.

Once described by Woody Allen as "probably the greatest film artist ... since the invention of the motion picture camera," Bergman first gained international attention with 1955's "Smiles of a Summer Night," a romantic comedy that inspired the Stephen Sondheim musical "A Little Night Music."

His last work, of about 60, was "Saraband," a made-for-television movie that aired on Swedish public television in December 2003, the year he retired.

Allen said he was "very sorry" to hear of Bergman's death.

"He was a friend and certainly the finest film director of my lifetime," the Web version of Swedish daily Aftonbladet quoted him as saying.

"Saraband" starred Liv Ullmann, the Norwegian actress and director who appeared in nine Bergman films and had a five-year affair, and a daughter, with the director.

The other actor most closely associated with Bergman was Max von Sydow, who appeared in 1957's "The Seventh Seal," an allegorical tale of the Black Plague years as a knight playing chess with the shrouded figure of Death, one of cinema's most famous scenes.

His 1982 film "Fanny and Alexander" won an Oscar for best foreign film. His 1973 "Cries and Whispers" was nominated for Best Picture.

"The world has lost one of its very greatest filmmakers. He taught us all so much throughout his life," said British actor and director Richard Attenborough.

Astrid Soderbergh Widding, president of The Ingmar Bergman Foundation, confirmed the death to The Associated Press, and Swedish journalist Marie Nyrerod said the director died peacefully during his sleep.

Bergman never fully recovered after a hip surgery in October last year, Nyrerod told Swedish broadcaster SVT.

"He was one of the world's biggest personalities. There were (Japanese film director Akira) Kurosawa, (Italy's Federico) Fellini and then Bergman. Now he is also gone," Danish director Bille August told The Associated Press.

"It is a great loss. I am in shock," August said.

Cannes Film Festival director Gilles Jacob called Bergman the "last of the greats, because he proved that cinema can be as profound as literature."

The son of a Lutheran clergyman and a housewife, Ernst Ingmar Bergman was born in Uppsala, Sweden on July 14, 1918, and grew up with a brother and sister in a household of severe discipline that he described in painful detail in the autobiography "The Magic Lantern."

The title comes from his childhood, when his brother got a "magic lantern" — a precursor of the slide-projector — for Christmas. Ingmar was consumed with jealousy, and he managed to acquire the object of his desire by trading it for a hundred tin soldiers.

The apparatus was a spot of joy in an often-cruel young life. Bergman recounted the horror of being locked in a closet and the humiliation of being made to wear a skirt as punishment for wetting his pants.

He broke with his parents at 19 and remained aloof from them, but later in life sought to understand them. The story of their lives was told in the television film "Sunday's Child," directed by his own son Daniel.

The director said he had coped with the authoritarian environment of his childhood by living in a world of fantasy. When he first saw a movie he was greatly moved.

But he said the escape into another world went so far that it took him years to tell reality from fantasy, and Bergman repeatedly described his life as a constant fight against demons, also reflected in his work.

The demons sometimes drove him to great art — as in "Cries and Whispers," the deathbed drama that climaxes when a dying woman cries "I am dead, but I can't leave you." Sometimes they drove him over the top, as in "Hour of the Wolf," where a nightmare-plagued artist meets real-life demons on a lonely island.

It was in the Swedish capital that Bergman broke into the world of drama, starting with a menial job at the Royal Opera House after dropping out of college.

Bergman was hired by the script department of Swedish Film Industry, the country's main production company, as an assistant script writer in 1942.

In 1944, his first original screenplay was filmed by Alf Sjoeberg, the dominant Swedish film director of the time. "Torment" won several awards including the Grand Prize of the 1946 Cannes Film Festival, and soon Bergman was directing an average of two films a year as well as working with stage production.

After the acclaimed "The Seventh Seal," he quickly came up with another success in "Wild Strawberries," in which an elderly professor's car trip to pick up an award is interspersed with dreams.

Other noted films include "Persona," about an actress and her nurse whose identities seem to merge, and "The Autumn Sonata," about a concert pianist and her two daughters, one severely handicapped and the other burdened by her child's drowning.

Though best known internationally for his films, Bergman was also a prominent stage director. He worked at several playhouses in Sweden from the mid-1940s, including the Royal Dramatic Theater in Stockholm which he headed from 1963 to 1966. He staged many plays by the Swedish author August Strindberg, whom he cited as an inspiration.

The influence of Strindberg's grueling and precise psychological dissections could be seen in "Scenes From a Marriage," an intense detailing of the disintegration of a marriage that was released as a feature film in 1974.

Bergman showed his lighter side in the following year's "The Magic Flute," again first produced for TV. It is a fairly straight production of the Mozart opera, enlivened by touches such as repeatedly showing the face of a young girl watching the opera and comically clumsy props and costumes.

Bergman remained active later in life with stage productions and occasional TV shows. He said he still felt a need to direct, although he had no plans to make another feature film.

Bergman, at age 84, started production on "Saraband" — based on the two main characters from "Scenes From a Marriage" — in the fall of 2002.

In a rare news conference, he said he wrote the story after realizing he was "pregnant with a play."

"At first I felt sick, very sick. It was strange. Like Abraham and Sarah, who suddenly realized she was pregnant," he said, referring to biblical characters. "It was lots of fun, suddenly to feel this urge returning."

Bergman waged a fight against real-life tormentors: Sweden's powerful tax authorities.

In 1976, during a rehearsal at the Royal Dramatic Theater, police came to take Bergman away for interrogation about tax evasion. The director, who had left all finances to be handled by a lawyer, was questioned for hours while his home was searched. When released, he was forbidden to leave the country.

The case caused an enormous uproar in the media and Bergman had a mental breakdown that sent him to hospital for over a month. He later was absolved of all accusations and in the end only had to pay some extra taxes.

In his autobiography he admitted to guilt in only one aspect: "I signed papers that I didn't read, even less understood."

The experience made him go into voluntary exile in Germany, to the embarrassment of the Swedish authorities. After nine years, he returned to Stockholm.

The date of Bergman's funeral has not been set, but will be attended by a close group of friends and family, the TT news agency reported.


©2007 The Associated Press

イングマル・ベルイマンのことで思い出すのは、晩年住んでいたスウェーデン南部のフォール島の岬近くの自宅を朝日新聞記者が訪ねる企画だったが、ベルイマン自身マスコミ嫌いもあって会えず、仕方なく関係者に取材して書いた"ある種滑稽な"記事である。その記事を探し出した、15年前の1992年(平成4年)1月26日の朝日新聞日曜版だ。詳細はこちら→「img162.pdf」をダウンロード


もう1作ぐらい作るのかなと筆者などは期待していたが残念である。まだ見ていない映画もあるので、この夏休みに追悼の意味も込めてまとめて見てみたい。人間の偽善、愛と苦悩、憎しみなど神と人間の問題がテーマの、形而上学的な作品を扱っているため、難解な映画監督のレッテルを貼られている。自伝風の作品が色濃く残る秀作揃いだ。筆者的には『ファニーとアレクサンデル』や『叫びと囁き』などが印象深い。もちろん『野いちご』、『第七の封印』『ある結婚の風景』など初期の作品も良いが。最後の『サラバンド』 (2003年 監督 /脚本) はまだ見ていない。
先週の日曜日にたまたま衛星放送の番組表を捲っていたら、またベルイマンの作品が衛星テレビで見れるなとチェックしていたばかりの訃報である。また、またひとり巨匠逝く、か。


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