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2006/02/09

超人のジャーナリスト・アイ 23 続

フランスの風刺週刊誌が掲載、イスラム預言者の漫画
2006.02.08
Web posted at: 19:40 JST
- CNN/REUTERS

パリ――フランスの風刺週刊誌「シャルリー・エブド」は8日、デンマーク紙が昨秋、載せたイスラム教の預言者ムハンマドの風刺漫画12点を表紙などに掲載した。言論の自由を支持するためとしており、一番最後のページにはキリスト教を風刺する漫画も付け加えている。


フランスのイスラム団体は同誌による預言者の風刺漫画掲載を阻止するため、法廷に訴えていたが、裁判所が7日、これを退けていた。


同誌は論説で、漫画を紹介する理由を説明し、「過激派が原則の問題で、脅しや恐怖などの手段で民主主義から譲歩を導き出す時、民主主義の意味はない」などと述べた。


ロイター通信は、同誌筋の情報として、編集事務所や一部スタッフは警察に警備、保護されていると伝えた。

■ノルウェーの全国紙 Aftenposten紙の2006年2月9日の記事。
Emergency aid affected
Major Norwegian humanitarian aid organizations are suspending their efforts in some Muslim nations in the wake of violent protests related to caricatures of the prophet Mohammed.
Related stories:
Hebron observers evacuated - 08.02.2006
Muslim groups apologize for violence - 08.02.2006
Norwegians more skeptical of Islam - 08.02.2006
Embassies on high alert - 06.02.2006
Local Muslim leaders to help settle conflict - 03.02.2006
Norwegians told to leave Gaza - 30.01.2006
Norwegian flag burned in Gaza - 30.01.2006
Norwegian Muslims want blasphemy law - 01.02.2006
Danish Mohammed cartoons circulate - 01.02.2006
Palestinian groups threaten Norwegians - 02.02.2006
A serious threat - 02.02.2006
Call for control - 02.02.2006
Demonstrators storm embassy building in Jakarta - 03.02.2006
Pakistan condemns Mohammed cartoons - 03.02.2006
The Red Cross, Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA), Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) and the Norwegian Refugee Council are modifying their aid efforts in several countries as a result of the protests over published caricatures of the prophet Mohammed, NRK (Norwegian Broadcasting) reports.

Several Norwegian aid organizations said Thursday that they would continue their efforts in Pakistan and other Muslim nations despite recent violent protests.

"We are continuing our work at full strength and as normally as possible. We are not scaling down. No one has been called home, but some have been temporarily relocated," said NCA foreign chief Knut Christiansen.

The NCA cooperates with Muslim partners and with religious leaders in several nations, including Pakistan and Sudan.

The Norwegian Red Cross also emphasized that their work to help earthquake victims in Pakistan, along with other aid projects, would continue as normal, though workers in Indonesia's Aceh province and Lebanon had been pulled out for the time being.

Danish aid organizations are also withdrawing from Muslim nations.

"It is tragic that this has come in the way, but we must first and foremost think about the safety of our workers," said Thomas Ravn-Pedersen, information chief for DanChurchAid.

The situation is historic for Nordic aid organizations, which have never before been the target of such rage.

■スウェーデンの新聞 ダーゲンス・ニーヘーテル紙の2006年2月8日の関連記事。

Muhammedkarikatyrerna

Skicka Skriv ut Textstorlek
Publicerad 8 februari 22:12
Höjd säkerhet i Libanon inför muslimsk högtid

Michael Winiarski
BEIRUT. Under torsdagen samlas minst en miljon libaneser i flera städer för att högtidlighålla Ashura, årets kanske största religiösa högtidsdag för hela världens shiamuslimer. Mitt under pågående global kris efter publiceringen av Muhammed-bilderna är det en potentiellt explosiv händelse.


Hadj-Ibrahim Khreis.
Förstora bilden


Muhammedkarikatyrerna

Senaste nytt
• Så tycker läsarna
• Svenskstött biståndsprogram stoppas
• Ärkebiskop K G Hammar fördömer Muhammedkarikatyrerna
• Rice anklagar Iran och Syrien
• Strid på Jyllands-Posten om Förintelsekarikatyr


Fakta
• Frågor och svar om Muhammedkarikatyrerna
• Frågor och svar om publiceringen av Jyllands-Postens Muhammedbilder


Ledare
• Niklas Ekdal: Danmarks sak blir vår
• Konsten att försvara det man inte gillar


Kultur
• Yttrandefriheten förvrängs
• Vägval ur den onda cirkeln
• NY Times om svensk integration
• De brænder min ambassade
• Konfrontation ­eller provokation


Insidan
• "Båda sidor har rätt - och fel"


Externa länkar
• Jyllands-Posten
• Udenrigsministeriet
• al-Jazira
• France Soir
• Die Welt
• Sveriges muslimska råd

I den shiamuslimska stadsdelen Dahiye i södra Beirut pågår förberedelserna för Ashura-högtiden för fullt. Under stora banderoller med texter av typ "Muhammed, vi är redo att göra allt du ber oss om!" och "Muhammed, Guds sändebud ger oss segern!" och beskyddade av några dussintal kalashnikovbehängda Hizbollah-män ägnar sig hantverkarna åt att bygga upp scener, läktare och talartribuner för massmötet.

Säkerheten är uppskruvad, men inget tyder på någon större nervositet för att något kommer att urarta. Det av USA och EU terroriststämplade partiet Hizbollah, som "äger" arrangemanget här i Beirut, har garanterat att det inte ska ske några våldsexcesser av det slag som nyligen riktats mot danska beskickningar i Damaskus, Beirut och Teheran. Det enda våld som väntas förekomma är symboliskt, och ibland verkligt, i form av olika slags självplågeri.

Ashura är sorglig tillställning, eftersom den högtidlighålls till minne av att profeten Muhammeds dotterson, imamen Hussein, dog martyrdöden denna dag år för mer än 1 300 år sedan. Det var på den tionde dagen av månaden Muharram som imam Hussein dödades i strid mot den "onde kalifen" Yazid i öknen utanför Kerbala i nuvarande Irak. Husseins huvud höggs av och spetsades på en påle som fördes till Damaskus.

Därför går processionerna i sorgens tecken, och alla är klädda i svart.

- Jag älskar Hussein, därför att han var profetens barnbarn, säger Hadj-Ibrahim Khreis, som äger en mindre livsmedelsbutik i Dahiye. Som förledet i hans namn avslöjar har han gjort pilgrimsfärden till Mecka, och han har också besökt den heliga staden Kerbala.

- Det är självklart för mig att delta i Ashura. Jag tror på att Hussein står vid himmelens port, och därför kan han hjälpa oss in.

Men han kommer inte att slå sig själv på riktigt under processionen.

- Nej det har utfärdats en fatwa som förbjuder oss att spilla vårt blod, i stället ska man donera blod till behövande.

- Plötsligt skakas huset av en häftig åsksmäll som följs av en häftig regnskur. Vi skyndar över till sheikh Hussein Sarhan, en hög shiamuslimsk präst, som tar emot i sitt rum som är fyllt med böcker och bilder av de iranska ayatollorna Khomeini och Khamenei.

Hussein Sarhan berättar om Ashuras betydelse för muslimer. Han jämför den med de kristnas påsk, den årliga åminnelsen av Jesu död och uppståndelse.

Detta är en återkommande revolution mot förtrycket, för det goda, vilket imam Hussein stod för. Vi firar Ashura för att visa vår lojalitet mot Muhammed, eftersom Hussein var hans värdige efterträdare

■デンマークの新聞 Jyllands-Posten紙の2006年2月8日の関連記事。

The editor's dilemma
Interview by Pierre Collignon, published on the 5th of February 2006
Editor Carsten Juste's decision to print 12 drawings depicting the Prophet Mohammed has released an unprecedented storm of protests directed against Denmark. On Monday night, Juste issued an apology for having hurt the feelings of Muslims around the world. But what exactly does this apology mean? And when it comes to satirizing Islam, how much further can we expect the Jylland-Posten boss to go in the future?

JP extra
Relaterede artikler
Honourable Fellow Citizens of the Muslim World
Chronology
The story behind the drawings
The editor and the 12 cartoons

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
During the first four months after greenlighting publication of the Mohammed drawings, editor-in-chief Carsten Juste categorically refused to allow the word `apology' to pass his lips.
Daily newspaper Jyllands-Posten cannot, and will not, offer an apology for publishing 12 drawings of the prophet Mohammed. `To do so would be to fail the many generations before us who have fought for freedom of expression,' Juste repeated time and again.

On Monday night, however, a new message was released from the newspaper boss's corner office at Ravnsbjerg Bakke, just outside the city of Aarhus. In a statement addressed to the: `Honourable fellow citizens of the Muslim world' - the statement now acknowledged that the drawings, despite not being in conflict with Danish law, had 'indisputably' offended many Muslims, 'for which we must apologise'.

Juste himself characterizes use of the word `apology' as a `semantic manoeuvre' and emphasises that his newspaper's position in the Mohammed dispute remains the same as always:

`Part one is that we maintain our freedom of expression. We will never apologise for that. Therefore we cannot apologise for publishing the drawings. Part two is that we regret offending the many Muslims who took offence. What's new is that we have now simply added an apology to part two.'

For Juste, it was the escalation of the affair over last weekend that became the decisive factor: Danish citizens in the Middle East felt their lives were being threatened.

The decisive factor for Juste was an escalation of the situation over the weekend. Danes in the Middle East feared for their lives.

`This is what tipped the scales,' says the Jylland-Posten's editor-in-chief.

A group of representatives from the Danish media were in Jordan's capital, Amman, on Monday, participating in a deal Danish news bureau Ritzau is negotiating with its Jordanian counterpart, Petra. This meant that news bureau bosses from most of the Middle East met together with ambassadors and the leader of the Danish-Egyptian Institute for Dialogue, Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen.

According to Juste this meeting presented the `perfect opportunity' to deliver a message to the entire Middle East in one go. That evening, Skovgaard-Petersen planned to make a speech. Why not use the occasion to read out a new statement from 'the Danish newspaper with the notorious drawings'?

`I sent the material over in the first instance in Danish. I had of course written that we regretted offending Muslims - that that had not been our intention. But they wanted to know why I hadn't written `apologise' instead. 'Arabs believe that the word `regret' is too weak, but they know what an apology is.' I sat here in my office considering this advice. I was well aware that by following it I could be giving the impression we had apologised for everything, when in fact we had not. I thought to myself, if this is a way of offering a small contribution, a way of helping to solve what was becoming an increasingly violent problem, then we'll do it. It won't hurt us. So I pressed the button.'

Has the prime minister or any other leaders from the Danish business world been in touch asking you to come forward with an apology?

`No, they haven't. They seem to be smart enough to know when it's best to leave something alone.'

According to one expert in rhetoric, Christian Kock, your apology does not constitute a real apology. He compares it with a situation where you left a rake out on a garden path, which hit your neighbour when he trod on it. You apologise that the neighbour hit himself. But you won't apologise for having left the rake upturned ...

`I see the comparison, but I don't think many others, aside from Christian Kock, can. The bottom line is, this was the recommendation I received from experts within this cultural area and in the Arabic language.'

Normally a person simply apologises for something he or she has done. You don't normally apologise for other people being upset about it. In this context, what is your newspaper's apology really worth?

`We apologise for having offended Muslims - that must easy to understand. But there wasn't much time, and I wanted to have a statement ready by that evening. It needed to go quickly, so there wasn't time to call in Christian Kock.'

Some imams have demanded not just an apology, but an undertaking that Jyllands-Posten will not publish drawings of the Prophet again. Can you promise that?

`No, I can definitely not promise not to do it again. It could be that we won't do it again, but we can't make that a promise. If we did, we would be curbing freedom of expression.'

But will you do it again?

`I have already said that we will take a break, but of course I cannot rule out that if a situation comes along where it seems relevant to do it, then we must do it.'

What is today's editorial line in relation to satirical drawings of Islam and the prophet Mohammed in Jyllands-Posten?

`The editorial policy is that we will not rule out the possibility of publishing drawings of Mohammed in a relevant context. One can see that the drawing of Mohammed with a bomb in his turban particularly sticks in their caw. We would be very unlikely to publish a drawing like that.'

Why not?

`Because so many people were offended by that one drawing in particular. That tells us that if that really is the case, then we have ethical standards ordering us to be cautious.'

Should the newspaper be more careful about satirising Islam as opposed to Christianity?

`Today we should, but we ought also to be honest and remember that a few years ago were equally considerate of devout Christians. The position that you don't publish drawings highly likely to offend certain beliefs is nothing new. We have held this position for many years. There are a lot of our illustrators who know what it's like to have me reject their drawings.'

So you're saying that we should be more cautious in regards to Islam than in regards to Christianity?

`Christianity has developed a certain lifestyle in the secular modern society, and that means that these kinds of problems generally don't appear nowadays.'

Could you consider the possibility that the newspaper might, in smaller doses, be able to accustom Muslims to satire? One could possibly publish the drawing with the bomb in 20 years?

`I have my doubts. In a way I can also understand the indignation. We wouldn't want Jesus drawn in highly compromising situations. I don't believe that the bomb drawing was highly compromising. Terrorists address themselves to Mohammed, and in my eyes the drawing was therefore a depiction of fundamentalists' own abuse of the image of Mohammed.'

If you won't publish these kinds of drawings again, does that mean you have learnt something from all of this?

`You could say that, and in the end there's no harm in saying it. We have done the same thing in many other situations with Christians. I have learned from my conversations with Muslims that their relationship with Mohammed is similar to a loving relationship. It is a kind of relationship we ordinary cultural Christians simply can't imagine.'

Will this result in less freedom of expression at the newspaper?

`It will not result in less freedom of expression than we had when we rejected depictions of Christian figures that clearly went over the line.'

If the goal for you and the newspaper is to strike a blow for freedom of expression, hasn't it ended badly?

`No, not directly, but we really cannot answer yet. We have demonstrated that there is self-censorship in Denmark. We have clearly shown that illustrators, artists, journalists, and the like practice self-censorship, and that they see the Muslim segment of the population as a group to which one must pay particular regard.'

What does the fight consist of now for the newspaper?

`There is an ongoing battle to be waged on behalf of freedom of expression. But sometimes we need to adjust the way we use this freedom, for example in relation to Muslims.'

But if you said that you would not publish the bomb drawing again, haven't you then given in to the conflict?

`No. I may have grown wiser on this point, but that doesn't mean we give up the battle. What I will fight for is that we can continue to question religious dogmas, traditions, and forces of habit. If we can't do that, society comes to a standstill.'

At one point you said to Berlingske Tidende newspaper that the opposition had won.

`True. It was almost a deep sigh of relief. When you look at it coldly and matter-of-factly, you have to admit that publishing the drawings created so much trouble, insecurity, threats and rebellion, I can hardly imagine any Danish newspaper will approach the problem in the same way we did for at least the next generation.'

Over the past week, a number of European newspapers have published the drawings in support of freedom of expression. Maybe it's not so hopeless as your sigh could have led us to believe?

`Better late than never. You can't expect these foreign newspapers to get involved in our domestic debates. I have criticised a large part of the Danish daily press for having done too little. They've been busier trying to find out if Jyllands-Posten had ulterior motives, than they have been with defending freedom of expression. It quickly became clear that what should have been a trifling matter developed into a case involving some of Western society's most precious principles. What I would have liked is some solidarity from the rest of the domestic press in the name of freedom of expression.'

Who are you thinking of specifically?

`I'm thinking specifically about our two rival morning newspapers, Berlingske Tidende and Politiken. They say their mission is to forge popular opinion. But I think we can agree they have failed.'

If you had known what was going to happen, would you have published the drawings?

`This is a hypothetical question based on hindsight, but if I knew Danes living abroad might become endangered, then I wouldn't do it. I don't think any editor-in-chief would. The stakes get simply too high. I probably would have suggested that we attack this as a journalistic challenge in another way.'

Would you say that you regret it?

`No. I don't regret anything. Newspapers must be written forwards, if I may rephrase our good friend Kierkegaard.'

Jyllands-Posten's cultural editor, Flemming Rose, said on Wednesday on television that he disagrees with you on this point. He would still have published the drawings, even knowing what it could lead to. Is there a split in the newspaper's leadership?

`I spoke with Flemming Rose about this issue afterwards, It's built on a misunderstanding. We agree that in the ultimate hypothesis, where we knew for sure human lives were at stake, then we would have acted differently. That said, Flemming Rose has made a great contribution to explaining the newspaper's point of view, and has the right to his own opinion.'

Are you satisfied with the way the newspaper has communicated its position throughout this situation?

`You can't do this kind of thing without misunderstandings. People misunderstand. Nevertheless opinion polls are showing a massive majority of the population support us, so the outlook is not completely bleak.'


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