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超人の面白読書 120 PR誌『経 Kei』(ダイモンド社) No.170 2015年12月号 続

その中で2015年8月23日付の『ジャパンタイムズ』に通知の内容は時代錯誤的であると批判するエッセー“Humanities under attack”を寄稿したとある。その内容は下記の通り。

Humanities under attack

by Takamitsu Sawa

August  23, 2015

HIKONE, SHIGA PREFECTURE – On June 8, all presidents of national universities received a notice from the education minister telling them to either abolish their undergraduate departments and graduate schools devoted to the humanities and social sciences or shift their curricula to fields with greater utilitarian values.
The bad tradition of evaluating academic learning and sciences in terms of their utility, with private-sector enterprises meddling in higher education, is still alive in Japan.
Indeed, policies related to higher education are under the control of the Council on Industrial Competitiveness, which is made up of nine Cabinet ministers, seven corporate managers and two scholars. One of the scholars is from the field of engineering while the other comes from economics.
A member of the education ministry’s panel of learned persons even said that the humanities and social sciences departments should be allowed to remain as they are only at the seven former Imperial universities and Keio University, and that those at other universities should be transformed into vocational training schools.
This person even went so far as to assert that students majoring in the humanities and social sciences at schools other than those eight institutions should be taught the Building Lots and Building Transaction Business Law instead of the Constitution, software programming for bookkeeping and accounting in place of Paul Samuelson’s “Economics,” and the skills of orally translating between Japanese and English rather than reading Shakespeare’s works.
These are outrageous proposals and I cannot tolerate anti-intellectuals distorting the government’s policies related to higher education.
During World War II, students of the natural sciences and engineering at high schools and universities were exempt from conscription and only those who were studying the humanities and social sciences were drafted into military service.
In March 1960, the education minister in Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi’s Cabinet said that all departments of the humanities and social sciences at national universities should be abolished so that those schools would concentrate on the natural sciences and engineering. He also said that education in the humanities and social sciences should be placed in the hands of private universities.
A certain well-known entrepreneur predicted, meanwhile, that before long a majority of high posts in politics, the bureaucracy and business would be occupied by those with natural science and engineering backgrounds.
One of the principal features of the “income doubling plan,” which Prime Minister Hayato Ikeda announced in December 1960 as his major platform, was to promote education in the natural sciences and engineering at universities.
All of these events still remain clearly in my memory as they came while I was preparing for my university entrance examinations.
Fortunately, the prediction made by the famous entrepreneur proved to be off the mark. A majority of Japanese political, bureaucratic and business leaders today are still those who studied the humanities and social sciences. This is because those who studied these subjects have superior faculties of thinking, judgment and expression, which are required of political, bureaucratic and business leaders. And the foundation for these faculties is a robust critical spirit.
The countries in which the famous entrepreneur’s prediction was on target were socialist. In the Soviet Union, many of those who climbed to the position of general-secretary of the Communist Party had engineering backgrounds. Mikhail Gorbachev did not. Successive Chinese presidents also had engineering backgrounds.
The foundation of democratic and liberal societies is a critical spirit, which is nurtured by knowledge of the humanities. Without exception, totalitarian states invariably reject knowledge in the humanities, and states that reject such knowledge always become totalitarian.
The administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has set an ambitious target of making 10 of the nation’s universities rank among the world’s top 100 within the next decade.
This target appears utterly impossible to achieve because at present only two universities in Japan are among the global top 100 — the University of Tokyo at 23rd and Kyoto University at 59th. Moreover, only three others — the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Osaka University and Tohoku University — are among those ranking between 101st and 200th.
The Abe administration’s target is tantamount to demanding the impossible. Why is it then that Japanese universities rank so low? One big reason is the low levels of education and research in the humanities and social sciences. Schools like the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, Stanford University and Harvard University, all of which are among the world’s top 10, are highly reputed in these fields.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which ranks sixth in the world, is often thought to be an institution devoted exclusively to engineering. But the fact is that it offers a wide variety of curricula in the humanities and social sciences, and the standards of its research in these fields are reputed to be among the highest in the world.
The University of Tokyo is the only Japanese university that is among at the global top 100 in the humanities and social sciences. Although it ranks 87th in social sciences, no Japanese universities, including the University of Tokyo, rank among the top 100 in the humanities.
Stanford University ranks first in both the humanities and social sciences, while MIT places second in social sciences. The London School of Economics and Political Science, which specializes in social sciences, ranks 34th overall, which is below the 23rd spot held by the University of Tokyo but far above Kyoto University’s rank of 59th
I believe that I am not alone in thinking that if Japan is serious about getting 10 of its universities into the world’s top 100, it will be far more cost-effective and advantageous to promote, rather than abolish or curtail, education and research in the humanities and social sciences.
Takamitsu Sawa is the president of Shiga University. (「ジャパンタイムズ」電子版より)


そして、2015年10月号(第165回)のタイトルは、なぜ日本では経済学が制度化しないのか、さらに9月号はビックデータ時代に不可欠なデータサイエンティストとは ? のタイトル。 計量経済学者らしく日本に統計学部・学科が存在しないことや統計学の歴史などに言及し、このエッセーでこう締めくくっている。
「統計学・情報学の専門知に加え、ビジネスパーソン・公務員・ジャーナリスト能力、そして価値創造能力を有するデータサイエンティストを養成する学部が、2017年度から滋賀大学に設立される。言語、数学、データサイエンスを修めることにより、思考力・判断力・表現力という3つの『真の学力』を完備した人材を養成する、わが国初の学部である。」統計学の歴史に関心大の筆者としては面白い試みだ。新たな知の地平が見えるかも―。

追記 ETV「日本人は何をめざしてきたか 未来への選択⑤ 戦後教育の70年の真実」(2016年1月9日午後11:00〜午前0:30)を観た。三重県尾鷲の学校をケーススタディとして卒業生や教師にインタビューをしながら検証を試み、戦後の教育改革に関わった人たちの証言(綴方教室で有名な無着成恭、歴代の教育改革に携わった文部官僚それに教育関係者)も織り交ぜて、戦後教育の“翻弄された”歴史を繙いていた。果たして戦後教育史の真実は描かれたか ? 番組の最後のほうで教育社会学者でオックスフォード大学教授の苅谷剛彦氏は、「理想主義だけでの教育では格差を拡げてしまう難しい時代だ」と。NHKのアンケートで、いま17才以下の生徒の16.3%、6人に1人が貧困層であることが判明し、親の経済力がないためなどで高校中退者が300万人もいるという。誰でも教育を受ける権利は憲法で保障されているはずなのだが現実はそうなっていない。この数字はそれを物語っている。学校教育は岐路に立たされていると番組は締めくくっていた。
ところで、『臨時教育審議会』の著者のW先生が出演していた!びっくりぽんや!

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